Blog Post #3

November 30, 2017

Audience Power:

On April Fools Day in 1976, a new film opened in New York City to audiences called the “The Rocky Horror Picture Show which was a low-budget film about a conservative suburban family stranded in a haunted house full of cross-dressing transvestites, aliens and a Frankenstein-style mad scientist. The movie got bad reviews and only got a sizable crowd in Los Angeles, bombing everywhere else. 20th Century Fox (the distributor of the film) decided to remove the film from theaters due to pressure as local theater exhibitors complained that only 50 of the available 800 seats were occupied.

What the movie theater owners failed to realize was that small group of 50 people who showed up would repeatedly come to watch the movie over and over. The dedicated core of regular viewers began dressing up as characters in the film, they would scream out the dialogue of the film (which they knew by heart) and a scholarly study found that two thirds of the people waiting in line to see the film had already seen it once. This film became a “cult” phenomenon grossing over $100 million so far. See how powerful an audience is? Had 20th Century Fox ignored the small loyal fan base and just payed attention to the overall audience; this movie would have flopped and they would have missed out on the potential to gross over $100 million.

Image result for the rocky horror picture show fans

There’s been cases where a movie would flop at the box office, but they would make another film due to fan demanding another one and there’s been films that have flopped at the box office but still generate more than production cost once it’s out of the theater. An example is Shawshank Redemption, it flopped at the box office but due to its cult following it made way more money through video rentals when it came out as VHS. Another example is the 1999 film “Fight Club” the 63$ million dollar budget movie flopped at the box office but once it was released to DVD; it started getting a cult following and the film made over $100 million dollars, the perception of the movie went from bad to good.

Fan Culture/Fandom with the rise of the Internet:

Due to digitization, mass computerization and the rise of the internet, the ability for audiences to select, consume, and remix media content has become greater than ever. With social media and new online platforms this gives audiences easier access and new opportunities for audiences to contribute their own creative ideas into media text; with this new trend the distinction between audience and producers is changing. With the internet, it offers offers a place where individuals can actively engage in conversation and share ideas and thoughts and a prime example of that is blogs, forums, Facebook groups. In Chapter 8, Sullivan defines fans as “audiences who are deeply engaged in their favourite media texts. Fans often reinterpret media content and create their own cultural production in response (p.193).” We are all “fans” of something whether it be music, sports, entertainment, politics, brands. Fans are “enthusiasts for a particular television program, film, or other media event who invest a great deal of time and intellectual energy into media text. Fans would collect artifacts related to their favorite texts, sought out social connections with similarly minded individuals and even marked themselves as fans to outsiders.”

I’m a fan of basketball and specifically the Toronto Raptors, I follow many Raptors related forums/groups where I meet other like minded individuals who have the same taste as me; some fans I’ve met have paid ridiculous amounts of money for Raptors souvenir (like game worn jerseys, shoes even headbands) and some have tattoo’s or bumper stickers on their cars which show they are Raptor fans.

Fan culture is important and can’t be ignored by producers because without fans, producers wouldn’t be making any money. An example of fan culture is Comic Con it’s a movie and comic book convention that happens in different cities throughout the years; at Comic Con you see people dressed up whatever they are a fan of (Star Wars, Marvel, DC Comics, video game character related costumes)

Fandom culture has existed throughout time and due to the digital age and the introduction of new technologies in our world fandom culture as evolved/progressed, we can access and consume media at a speed never seen before. These new technologies not only help us consume more media at once but also it allows us to have easy access on topics we care about, along with the ability to share thoughts with others who share those same passions.

We have easier access to see what athletes, musicians, performers and artists are up to compared to previous generations because we are more connected than ever because of the internet. Many ordinary people who don’t have celebrity status have used online platforms like Vine, YouTube, Facebook, blogs to become internet sensations which is basically like a celebrity; some examples are Rebecca Black (Friday), Danielle Bregoli (Catch me outside) and many more; they all got popular because of the internet (social media, the ability to reach a large audience number). There’s too many internet sensations to name and they are all apart of different subcultures (music, dance, hobbies, internet challenges, genuine reactions, different phenomena’s). John Fiske noted that fandom is “associated with the cultural tastes of subordinated formations of the people, particularly those dis empowered by any combination of gender, age, class, and race” (Sullivan, 2013). Basically, these individuals have a cultural advantage by being from a certain lifestyle and culture which is why they become popular. I’m personally a fan of Nas Daily, he’s a video blogger who travels all over the world and he’d sum up all his adventures in 1 minute. Today he has 2.2 million followers on Facebook, even travel blogging is considered a subculture, it’s just people who video blog their travels and give advice of what to do and not to do at the place they are currently at. Everyday individuals have the ability to share their experience with a broad audience due to online platforms.

Fandom Groups/Nicknames:

A group was presenting in seminar and they touched on fandom culture and subculture and they had this group activity where we match the fandom nicknames to singers, music bands, films, television shows, books, games, sports teams, and celebrities. An example of fandom nicknames would be how Beyonce fans are called “BeyHive”, Harry Potter fans as “Potterheads” and Justin Bieber fans as “Beliebers”; fandom nicknames group fans to subcultures they are into. This is actually a 21st century phenomenon and the reason why is because fans are connected more than ever due to digitization

Whenever we encounter media texts, we are engaged with in a particular moment and space. Two factors come out from when we encounter media texts; how we receive those texts (ex. were we distracted or not while encountering the text) and how we interpret those texts. Media consumption always takes place within a particular physical context. Physical context meaning the atmosphere of where you are (you could be home alone with headphones, or in the living room watching with roommates) and how you interpret those texts depends on the factors (physical context; the atmosphere)

The “The Influences of Sports Viewing Conditions on Enjoyment from Watching Televised Sports: An Analysis of the FIFA World Cup Audiences in Theater vs. Home” article made me think of my experience of watching a game live vs. watching a game via television. When you are at a live game the atmosphere is different vs. the atmosphere of watching a game at home. In a live game; you’re actually there when the crowd is cheering, everyone is wearing jerseys supporting the team and the game experience is different vs watching a game at home; where factors like lighting, other people in your home affect the overall atmosphere which is why watching a game in a movie theatre actually closes the gap of watching a live game vs. on tv (via theater) due to image quality, atmosphere, sound quality. I remember watching a Raptors playoff game at the Brock Lofts (which has a movie theater inside), now I’m not gonna say it was close to watching a live game but it sure was better watching it via television. The screen was huge, the sound quality was amazing (the cheering felt more realistic through the theater sound vs. a television) and the other people in the theater were Raptor fans as well. The atmosphere in a theater felt more better for a live game vs. watching at home, my moms not into basketball nor does she care so she would walk in interrupt me whenever I’m watching a game at home, she’d tell me to turn the sound down, basically interrupt my watching experience whereas in a theater the atmosphere is different, if my mom told me that in a theater she’d probably have the people around me heckling her 😛




Blog 2: Digital Age/Social Media & Advertisers/Audience Commodity/Product Placement/Stuart Hall/Encoding&Decoding

November 2, 2017

Chapter 4 starts off with how Wal-Mart has a database of purchasing behavior by American consumers, basically customer purchasing behavior. From the database Wal-Mart is able to see patterns of what’s being sold, the quantity, what’s popular, etc. This benefits Wal-Mart because they are able to keep prices and overhead low and that’s because they know customer behavior well enough to minimize warehousing costs. Through the database, now only can they track but they can also predict consumer behavior. When Hurricane Frances happened in Florida in 2004, they were already able to predict the demand for certain products. They were able to respond quickly because of being able to predict consumer behavior, truckloads of flashlights, batteries, blankets, beer and strangely strawberry pop-tarts were brought in truckloads and sold out. It isn’t only Wal-Mart keeping track of it’s consumers, social media platforms have followed suit as well.

The “Blindspot” debate: Audience Commodity


The term audience was depicted as a large group of people sharing a physical location for an event. In today’s society with the internet and digital age, the term audience has developed due to various social media networks that allows individuals to be audiences of.

So… Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram….. What do these companies have in common?

They all have millions of followers, are free to use and they sell no tangible products. Yet these companies generate millions and are valued in the millions as well, where does most of their revenue come from?



All these social media platforms have an audience in the millions. Canadian media scholar, Dallas W. Smythe talks about how the “attention of the audience is being sold to advertisers” (p.81) through communication products (such as television programs, radio shows, motion pictures” he said how the content of the media was “an inducement (gift, bribe, or ‘free lunch’” to recruit potential members of the audiences to media producers was their viewership. This is where the term “the audience commodity” was coined, audience viewers was a new product that media corporations could sell to advertisers; this is why advertisers pay thousands to millions to advertise, they value an audience.

An example that stuck out to me while reading this was the “Superman vs. Batman” movie I remember reading this article (which I couldn’t seem to find) about how the movie already made half its budget back before the movie was released and that was due to advertisers mainly to do with product placement. The products placed in the movie ranged from electronics to automobiles to apparel and even food and drinks (they put jolly ranchers in a scene)

Instead of advertising at commercial breaks advertisers now advertise through the program. I came across this article from The Guardian on product placement it said “In 2012, advertisers spent $8.25bn on product placement, and the market is expected to nearly double in the next five years.”


Why might that be? What are advertisers valuing so much here? Why are they spending billions on product placement? and why is this expected to increase? It’s because they value viewers who are now looked as a commodity (audience commodity). Critical scholar Sut Jhally took this theory further he said that “advertisers were actually buying viewers attention and time in front of the television and not their potential future brand loyalty”. The audience is working as a labor force, without the labor of the audience to watch the advertising the structure of commercial media relied on the labor of audience to watch.


We see plenty of advertisements throughout our day from watching television to going on the internet and even buses have advertisement all over them. With technology advancements and the popularity of the internet, audience commodification via social network has completely changed the way audiences are targeted by advertisers. The leisure time we use to consume content is now used to market similar products or content in order for corporations to make big profits. This idea is not really new to us, the Nielsen rating system took advantage of heavy television viewing by families by monitoring the peak hours of viewing and what kind of programs people were consuming. Social networking platforms are using our information to sell to marketers. I was shopping for Timberland boots on Ebay and I’m on Facebook where the side advertisements were all boots related, different brands similar to the Timberland boots started popping up on the corner of my Facebook feed. I’ve noticed this occurrence whenever I search up something I’m interested in buying, Facebook would have an ad tailored to what I searched. I’m not sure if I should be impressed or a little concerned about this


Are social media platforms who sell out information to advertisers exploiting us? Or is it our fault? Should social media companies be more open about what they do with our information? Those are some of the thoughts that go through my head when I think about audience commodity

Uses and Gratification


Let’s talk fantasy sports, it’s a new kind of game and it makes you look at sports from a different lens. I personally have played basketball fantasy for a few years (except this year). Researchers Farquhar and Robert Meeds (2007) surveyed 42 fantasy sports participants to find out why people were into fantasy sports and they noticed two things: some facts participated in fantasy sports because they enjoyed following statistical trends and expressed a desire to outsmart their opponents; which is exactly the reason why I was into fantasy sports. I was more interested in looking at boxscores and basketball statistics more than watching the actual players play. It was fun to outsmart your friends, I’d always pick unpopular players (rookies, 10 day contract players) just to show my opponents that I could win matchups with my basketball knowledge


Uses and gratification theorists consider how and why individuals use the media rather than considering the ways in which they are acted upon by outside forces (p.108). Elihu Katz questioned and focused on “what do people do with the media?” (p.109).  When audience members are working as consumers during their time of leisure, they’re using the Uses and Gratifications theory to bring their own sets of beliefs, values, and needs to shape their environment to their media exposure (p.109).  Professor Good also mentioned in lecture that the Uses and Gratifications theory sees audiences as active, self-aware, selective, and discriminating. This works in contrast with the stereotype that our mind isn’t active during leisure time.  Our minds are actually most actively engaged online and through media during our leisure time, we are more exposed to being active, and selective online. This makes audience members to channel their attention to the different forms of mass media in cognition with their personal needs because they have more time to do so on the weekends then they do on the weekdays. This ties in with the assumptions of uses and gratification approach assumption that audience members are aware of their own individual needs and motivation in selecting certain media and how individuals select different types of media in order to satisfy a particular need or desire (p.113)



Sullivan (2013), explains five different “needs” from the Uses and Gratification approach:

1.  Cognitive Needs: Needs related to “strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding”
2.   Affective Needs: Needs related to “strengthening aesthetic, pleasurable, and emotional experience”
3.   Personal Integrative Needs: Needs related to “strengthening credibility, confidence, stability, and status”
4.   Social Needs: Needs related to “strengthening contact with family, friends, and the world”
5.   Escape Needs: Needs related to escape or tension release, also “weaken(s) contact with self and one’s social needs”
(p. 114)


The theory of Uses and Gratifications explains why media educates the audience.  Due to the fact that Uses and Gratifications allows audiences to do something with the mass media, it educates the audience with an economic and consumer mindset when they have during leisure as well, proving the point that audience mindsets are always working during leisure time.

As I study communications, I know that news stories reported over social media may not always be accurate. I use my cognitive need of the uses and gratifications theory to seek information so I’m educated as an audience member. This proves that on the weekend, my mind is still working, and grasping the information being communicated to me through the news.  During the commercials, I only pay attention to the products or services that I’m personally interested in.


Today in the digital age, we are highly inclined to use digital media as audience members.  The theory of work versus leisure and uses and gratifications also works in the digital age today with the theory of target marketing.  In my leisure time I like to go on my laptop and watch YouTube videos and/or scroll through social media.  The advertisements that only suit our interests and needs also are the advertisements that we are interested in, and appear on our social media websites online due social media platforms selling their audience as commodity to advertisers, allowing advertisers to specifically target their demographic. The advertisers using the digital and social media streams as a platform for advertisements know us personally, they take our demographics, social behavior, interests, our likes, psycho-graphics, etc., using all of that to advertise to us over the internet (similar to what Walmart does when it studies consumer behavior expect social media platforms know every detail and behavior about us, sometime they know us better than we know ourselves). The theory of Uses and Gratifications and the theory shows that we are audience members on a daily basis, we are being educated by advertisements on a daily basis, and our minds are always “working actively” on a daily basis.




I remember learning Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding theory from comm 1F90. With Stuart Halls encoding and decoding theory; at the encoding stage, the producers of texts create messages (codes) which they expect their viewers/readers to understand. Stuart Hall argued that the meaning is not fixed/determined by the sender, the message is never transparent and the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning, he also added that texts are polysemic; polysemic meaning they have multiple meanings as the meanings vary depending on how the recipient decodes the message. When audience come in contact with the text, we decode the messages to create meaning.

Professor Good made the class guess this riddle that was about how a father rushed his son for surgery and the surgeon refused because “it’s my son”, everyone in class had a different answer, I was thinking adopted and biological dad, some people guessed the surgeon was the mother, all the answers varied because all the recipients of the riddle decoded it differently (part of it was due to how we think family should be, what gender people pictured a surgeon would be, our experiences, point of view etc) because every recipient of the riddle used their views and experience to decode the riddle.



With so many active audience members, miscommunication and interpretation of meaning and messages can end up badly for the advertisers in some cases causing them to have backlash. For example, in class we were shown a Pepsi commercial starring Kendall Jenner. The advertisement portrays a protest taking place and young people (minorities of different cultures) are marching and then Jenner joins the protest in and marches up to a police officer and hands him the soda. As he drinks the soda, a large smile appears on his face and the protesters are content with joy, everyone is happy and celebrating. Upon viewing this ad, I understood where Pepsi was trying to go with this ad, where the conflict is solved by this brave gesture and everyone gets along with each other after the gesture. I believe Pepsi wanted to signify bold actions and create this sequence to display that message with the soda being the sign and handing the soda as the signifier. But while America was in the midst of constant protests and riots from black lives matter, police brutality was a sensitive topic in the community. Due to these issues taking place the audience decoded this message at poking fun of the serious on-going issues especially with using a Kardashian in the commercial (someone who’s part of the elite rich and aren’t really known to involve themselves in social justice and inequality issues)


Polysemy and Three subject positions:

Texts (whether print, pictorial, or televisual) are polysemic, polysemic meaning they have more than one meaning. Stuart Hall posited Posited three “hypothetical” positions from which media decoding could take place:

  • Dominant-Hegemonic Position (or Dominant Reading)
    • Where they accept the media message exactly in terms of the code in which it was produced
    • The reader would accept the dominant position without a great deal of reflection
  • Negotiated Position (or Negotiated Reading)
    • The reader would interpret the message with “a mixture of the adaptive and oppositional  elements
    • Reader negotiates with the dominant position as they are able to filter media content through the lens of their own individualized experiences and worldview
  • Opposition Position (or Oppositional Reading)
    • Viewer/Reader has an ideological struggle against the message and/or its producers
    • Completely rejects the dominant position

I had to do my seminar facilitation with my partner Alex on Chapter 6 and the Tartan article, so what we had was poster advertisements with different pictures and we had the seminar class find the three subject reading positions from each posters. An example that I came across that really helped me understand Stuart Hall’s concept of the three subject positions was this McDonald’s Big Mac ad.



The dominant reading (or preferred) of this ad is what McDonald’s wants you to think of this ad.The preferred reading McDonald’s would like you to make is that Big Macs are delicious and that you’d like to eat one right now because they have fresh lettuce, gherkins, sauce, cheese, two beef patties etc. That’s what the message sender wants you to think.


The negotiated reading allows us to know that Big Macs may be unhealthy, that they might not always be as attractive as the image but that if we eat them in moderation then we won’t get fat and we can enjoy them. Basically negotiating with the dominant position and putting your own experience/moral/thoughts and view into it.


The The oppositional reading is completely opposing the dominant position so the oppositional position is that Big Macs are unhealthy, they will make you fat, lead to health issues in later life and never look like the advert. Also audiences outside the targeted audience may have an oppositional position.

Tartan Brand Article: Oritentalism

Orientalism was a term that was brought up in the Tartan Asia Extreme Brand article and I found this topic interesting because I learned about Orientalism before briefly. Orientalism is a term that is used by art historians, literary, and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures). It’s basically how the West views the East and how the Western world (mainly America) portrays the East. Would Orientalism be a one-sided argument? are Americans only one at fault or does the East view the West in the same manner? An interesting example is the conflict between the United States and North Korea, we see in the media how North Korea is portrayed to us but I’ve always wondered how North Korea portrays America and every other Western country to their people. Maybe Orientalism isn’t a one-sided argument after all…



What is intertextuality? Intertextuality is  the interrelationship between texts, especially works of literature; the way that similar or related texts influence, reflect, or differ from each other: Shaping a text’s meaning through other texts. Basically every text/content/media/song/writing/movie/anything is recycled/already done/influenced/done previously. Fashion for example has so many aspects of intertextuality with it as fashion always takes influence from something. Another good example is TV show, The Simpsons, every episode parodies or imitates an iconic moment from a movie, another tv show or a celebrity moment, so they are influenced from another source.


In this day and age should we believe that there is still originality to ideas, concepts, or should we believe everything has been taken from previous sources?

I personally believe that everything is taken from a previous source because we are always influenced by something one way or the other.

Connotation and Denotation :


Connotation is the meaning behind a word (the implication of the word) whereas denotation is the literal meaning behind the word (the dictionary word). Connotation and Denotation gets used everywhere (in marketing, media, film) a good example is when the media use the word “protest” or “riot”; an event can be happening but that word plays a huge role in how news is portrayed. When a media outlet labels civilians as either “protesters” or “rioters” it makes you look at both differently. When you think of protesters  you think of people who are standing up to something peacefully whereas riots portray people as uncivilized, wild, not peaceful. A good example of this is how the media portrays Black Lives Matter events (I use the word events because I wanted to stay neutral and show how the media plays a huge role in this. Even the pictures they use, the words they use is the signifier while the pictures they use to give us a image is signified which both give us a sign. It’s always good to be aware of this because you can see where the media is going with certain news and events. I notice connotation and denotation when it comes to the media reporting news, news media that lean left and right would both report on the same event but they would both portray it in a different way using words.




Sullivan, J. (2013). Media Audiences, Effects, Users, Institutions, Power. California: SAGE Publications.


Blog Post #1; Audiences, Advertising, Donald Trump

October 5, 2017

Joshua Nagenthiram 4959425

Audiences have existed since mankind has existed, back in the era where cavemen existed, they would gather around bonfires as a collective ritual to share stories, celebrate, inform, entertain

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Fast forward to a thousand…. maybe million years later we have Ancient Greek society where the concept of audiences was intertwined with the notion of the public and public spaces they did this with the Greek theater which provided entertainment to the public; this was used to control and appeal to lower social classes in order to gain and retain political process through democratic process. These events were collocated in time and space and that was the concept of audience, but as years passed by the concept changed……

Remember playing broken telephone in kindergarten?

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Where the teacher would have all the kids sitting close to each other and would relay a message to the first person and expect us to pass it on till the end, and every time the original message the teacher said and the end message the last kid receives aren’t the same?


Well that’s how society worked for a long time, through word of mouth. Then words were created and used, literacy become a thing and books started to emerge. The book brought about the first separation between the originator of a message and the message receiver (p.11, Sullivan). The “act of reading” changed the audience experience and audience structure adding a different aspect to it, people were able to read texts in silence to themselves;

Media audiences has evolved with technological advancements like the internet being apart of our everyday life where social media, video streaming, live streaming are used by millions all over the world; you can be apart of an audience being alone in the comfort of your own home. Even when I’m sitting in a 3P18 lecture or seminar, I’m apart of an audience, when I’m on Twitter and Facebook, i’m apart of an audience. When you look at a billboard or a poster, you are apart of an audience. When….I think you get my point now. Even the concept of public sphere has evolved, before it was a table full of people discussing and now you can argue a Facebook chat group can be a modern day public sphere. Even the state of journalism is changing, we are moving from the print industry to the digital industry; it’s forcing journalism to change and adapt now. Now we can get live and updated news within seconds opposed to waiting 9am for the newspaper to be delivered to your front door.

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This is also causing a conflict between social norms and journalism norms because social media is breaking barriers between the journalist and audience now; we can now have access to a journalist’s personal life, have direct contact with him and this is causing conflict because before this wasn’t the case. Another issue is how a journalist’s personal interest and the company’s interest intertwine together. If the perception of the journalist is in a negative light then that will also apply to the company s/he works for. From the Double-Edged Sword article written by Jeyeon Lee; the study showed “the relationship between journalist perception and news perception in the professional dimension. The result indicated that professional-dimension journalist perception was a significant, positive predictor of professional-dimension news perception”. This is why companies have strict guidelines for journalists on how to use social media “that focus on preventing trash-talking and perceived conflicts of interest” because the audience’s perception of a journalist impacts the audience’s perception of the company. This is why you see companies fire media figures when they get involved in a scandal or anything public scandal related; an example is Justine Sacco, who was the senior director of communications at media company IAC she tweeted “Going to Africa. Hope I don’t get AIDS. Just kidding. I’m white!”. She tweeted this while on her way to Africa and turned her phone off, the whole time this spread all over social media and hurt her reputation, she ended up being fired from IAC shortly after because of her comments. Although it had nothing to do with her job, the perception that it gave to the audience forced her employer to let her go.

I find this course and the concept of looking into audiences interesting because it relates to my degree major (Business Communications) and down the line I want to have a career in the marketing field hopefully working for a big advertising agency. The main point of advertising is basically to reach out to an audience and grab their attention in any way, that’s why different styles of marketing exist and even that’s evolved with the concept of audience changing. In class the professor showed a commercial from Molson Canadian Beer. It had a large red fridge in the middle of the street and required people to say “I am Canadian” in different languages. I loved the concept because it engaged the audience who were there at the scene of the fridge as well as the other audience watching the commercial. It portrayed and signified on one of Canada’s biggest strengths, which is diversity and that we are all Canadian.anigif_enhanced-5698-1403542254-29

I liked how Molson Canadian appealed to the entire audience of Canada (every race, ethnicity) all while connecting them all as Canadian. Audience power is important because it’s why companies pay millions to advertise commercials that span from 15 seconds to 30 seconds to grab the attention of a mass audience, the example used in class was the 1984 “Macintosh” commercial by Apple that premiered at the superbowl (which has a large television audience every year). The commercial consisted of all these bland looking guys in a room staring at a TV where a cult leader is talking and then you see this lady wearing white and red  running from police and throwing the hammer at the TV. The commercial ends with the narrator’s saying “Then you see the saying you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984”. The commercial was about introducing the Macintosh but it never mentioned the Macintosh or its specs, but the commercial was a huge hit and garnered interest from various media outlets which expanded to a bigger audience Apple intended to reach out to. I hope in a few years I can be a part of a successful campaign for a advertising agency.



So…. 2017 has been an interesting year so far, hasn’t it? The previous host of celebrity apprentice is now President of the United States. He doesn’t really fit the “politician” label, but I guess that’s part of a reason he won. Many major media outlets predicted Hillary Clinton as the favorite and Donald Trump as the underdog

……boy were they wrong! But how did this happen?

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Wouldn’t this be a bad look for the media and somewhat undermine their credibility? They predicted an outcome and were wrong about it. How did the audience react to this? The media has power to  influence audience members perceptions, even if they haven’t researched the particular subject themselves. The agenda-setting theory tells us what to think, and the way we interpret the story allows each individual to come up with there own conclusion about the particular subject. The presidential race is a good example for agenda-setting theory because both left-wing and right-wing media outlets played a huge influence on the audience’s perception of Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton through framing. Framing occurs when journalists or media producers “select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communication text, in such a way as to promote a  particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatment recommendation” (Entman, 1993, p.52) (p71, Sullivan) . On one side you all you heard about was Hillary’s email scandal, pizzagate, and her health and on the other end you hear about Donald Trump his Russia scandal, hate speech, his association with white supremacists and his personal interests his corporate interests); one side was in favor of Donald Trump while the other side was in favor of Hillary Clinton, whether the accusations were true or not it definitely played a influence on the audience.

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Source credibility, or the degree to which a message receiver perceived the source of the message to be credited, emerged as a major factor in determining whether or not attitude change took place in the receiver (p.40. Sullivan). So how did the media get the presidential election prediction wrong? Maybe the people surveyed weren’t being completely honest? German scholar Elisabeth Neumann’s theory, the Spiral of Silence, claims that individuals naturally fear social isolation and will their own opinions if they are in the minority (p.71); that very well may have been a big factor here. I’ve seen articles of how people got fired from their jobs and ridiculed for showing their support for Trump; that backlash Trump supporters received made other secret supporters keep their opinions to themselves. Also the underdog effect was a factor here where the public shifts its support to a minority position or political candidate which was in this case Donald Trump; added with storylines about Hillary Clinton’s email scandal and her health that started gaining buzz. Another reason why the media got the prediction wrong is the issue of sampling error; they may have not taken into account that the electoral vote which has a major flaw; the winner of the popular vote can still lose which is what happened in this case. According to CNN Hillary “outpaced President-elect Donald Trump by almost 2.9 million votes, with 65,844,954 (48.2%) to his 62,979,879 (46.1%), according to revised and certified final election results from all 50 states and the District of Columbia”; so state overall votes counted more than individual votes here which is a conceptual error.

It’s really hard to pinpoint how Hillary lost but there’s many factors that came into play here and I’m sure the media has taken notice and learned from it. With social media and the internet the margin for error has to be minimal especially for the media who rely on credibility.

Even people who aren’t American are interested in American politics now (such as myself), a major part of it is because of the internet and how everyone has easy access to information. News can travel globally and reach an audience faster than ever. In 2017, everyone has social media; politicians, journalists, celebrities; they are able to use this platform however they feel they need to and they can directly reach an audience now without the need for a medium (the media). Donald Trump has a twitter account and he also has a “POTUS” account; one of them he’s professional and on the other it’s his personal account in which he says his views and opinions on things. I like that social media brings the audience close to the message sender; we can see his thoughts on everything and come to our own conclusions.

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Media Audiences Textbook

The Double-Edged Sword: The Effects of Journalists’ Social Media Activities on Audience Perceptions of Journalists and Their News Products by Jayeon Lee


Hello world!

February 26, 2010

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